Theophyline

Indication: Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema.
Dosage & Administration: One tablet 12 hourly, at least 1 hour before or 2 hour after meal.
Contraindication & Precaution: Hypersensitivity to theophyline, petic ulcer disease, seizure disorders.
Side Effect: Irritation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, palpitations, a fall in blood pressure, headache, diarrrhoea and insomnia.
Drug Interaction: Theophyline can potentiate hypokalemia resulting from ß2-agonist therapy, steroids, diuretics and hypoxia, Particular caution is advised in severe asthma.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: Theophylline should not be recommended during pregnancy & lactation.
Preparation: 300 mg SR Tablet.

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Candesartan

Indication: Hypertension.
Dosage & Administration: 2-32 mg once or twice daily.
Contraindication & Precaution: Hypersensitive.
Side Effect: Asthenia, fever, paresthesia, vertigo, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, tachycardia, palpitation, creatine phophokinase increased, hyerglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, myalgia, pistaxis, anxiety, depression, somnolence, rash, sweating increased, and hematuria.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: Not indicated.
Preparation: 8 mg and 16 mg Tablet.

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Atorvastatin

Indication: For reduction of elevated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial & non familial). Fredrickson Type lla, llb lll & lV dyslipidemia.
Dosage & Administration: Usual dose is 10 mg once daily. Dosage range is Anzitor(R) 10 to 80 mg once daily.
Side Effect: Side effects are mild and transient. Reversible myositis, headache, altered liver-function tests and gastro-intestinal effects including abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Thrombocytopenia, rash and hypersensitivity reactions insomnia, angioedema, anirexia, asthenia, paraesthesia, peripheral neuropathy, alopecia, pruritus, rash, impotence, chest pain, hypoglycemia and hypirglycemia.
Contraindication: Liver disease, myalgia, myopathy and hypersensitivity to the drug.
Drug Interaction: Cyclosporin, fibric acid derivatives, erythromcin, azole antifrngals, or miacin (nicotinic acid).
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: Atovastatin is contraindicated in pregnancy and while berast-feeding.
Preparation: 10 mg and 20 mg Tablet.

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Chlorpheniramine

Indication: Allergic conditions including urticaria, sensitivity reactions, angioneurotic oedema, hay fever, vasomotor rhinitis, cough, common cold, motion sickness.
Dosage & Administration: Adults : 4 mg 3-4 times daily. Children : Up to 1 (one) year: 1 mg twice daily: 1-5 years: 1 mg 3-4 times daily: 6-12 years: 2 mg 3-4 times daily or as directed by the physician.
Side Effect: Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, psychomotor impairment, urinary retention, dry mouth, blurred vision and gastro-intestinal disturbances.
Contraindication & Precaution: It should be used with caution in epilepsy, prostatic hypertrophy, glaucoma and hepatic disease. The ability to drive or operate machinery may be impaired.
Preparation: 2 mg/5 ml Syrup.

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Sodium Cromoglycate and Xylometazoline

Indication: Prophylaxis and treatment of allergic rhinitis accompanied by nasal congestion.
Dosage & Administration: Adults (including the elderly) and children: one spray to each nostril four times daily.
Contraindication & Precaution: Known sensitivity to any ingredients of the preparation.
Side Effect: No serious side effects have been reported. Occasional irritation of the nasal mucosa, wheezing and tightness of the chest has been reported. Xylometazoline causes mild side effects such as nasal irritation, dryness of the nose, sneezing, headache, insomnia, drowsiness and palpitaions.
Preparation: (2.6 mg + 0.0325 mg)/spray, Metered Dose Nasal Spray.

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Xylometazoline

Indication: Nasal congestion, seasonal & perennial allergic rhinitis, sinusitis.
Dosage & Administration: Adults : 2 or 3 drops adult formula (0.1%) 2-3 times daily. Children under 12 yrs : 1 or 2 drops children’s formula (0.05%) in each nostril 1-2 times daily. Not to be used in infants less than 3 months.
Contraindication & Precaution: Patients with trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy or surgery exposing the dura mater, hypersensitive to Xylometazoline.
Side Effect: Burning sensation, local irritation nausea, headache, and dryness of the nasal mucosa. Systemic cardiovascular effects have occurred, and this should be kept in mind when giving Antazol(R) to people with cardiovascular disease.
Preparation: 0.05% and 0.1% Nasal Drops.

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Nitroglycerin

Indication: The prophylaxis of chronic stable angina pectoris.
Dosage & Administration: 1 or 2 tablets taken three times daily. The lowest effective dose should be used.
Contraindication & Precaution: Should not be used in patients with marked anaemia, head trauma, cerebral haemorrahage, closed angle glaucoma, known hypersensitivity to nitrates, hypotensive conditions, hypovolaemia, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, aortic/mitral stenosis, cardiac tamponade, constrictive pericarditis, orthostatic dysfunction, co-administration with sildenafil.
Side Effect: Facial flushing, headache, dizziness and postural hypotension which may be associated with reflex tachycardia or paradoxical bradycardia, Toxic effects of Nitroglycerin include vomiting restlessness, cyanosis, methaemoglobinaemia and syncope.
Drug Interaction: Nitroglycerin may enhance the effects of peripheral vasodilators. The hypotensive effects of nitrates are potentiated by concurrent administration of sildenafil.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: Nitrates should not be administered to pregnant women and nursing mothers unless considered essential by the physician.
Pediatric Use: Not recommended.
Preparation: 2.6 mg SR (Sustained Release) Tablet.

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Nitroglycerin

Indication: Indicated for the acute relief of an attack or acute prophylaxis of angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease.
Dosage & Administration: One tablet should be dissolved under the tongue at the first sign of an acute anginal attack. The dose may be repeated approximately every five minutes, until rilief is obtained. If the pain persists after a total of 3 tablets in a 15-minute period, prompt medical attention is recommended
Contraindication & Precaution: Contraindicated in patients with early myocardial infarction, severe anemia, increased intracranial pressure and those with a known hypersensitivity to Nitroglycerin, Also contraindicated in patients who are using sildenafil citrate since sildenafil citrate has been shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of organic nitrates. Only the smallest dose required for effective control of the acute anginal attack should be used. Excessive use may lead to the development of tolerance. This drug should be used with caution in patients who may be volume-depleted or are already hypotensive.
Drug Interaction: Antihypertensive drugs, beta-adrenergic blockers, phenothiazines, calcium channel blockers, alcohol may cause hypotension. Aspirin, ergotamine and releted drugs.
Side Effect: Headache which may be severe and persistent may occur immediately after use. Vertigo, dizziness, weakness, palpitation and other manifestations of postural hypotension may develop occasionally.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: Should be given to a pregnant woman only if clecrly needed. It is not known whether nitroglycerin is excreted in human milk.
Preparation: 0.5 mg Sublingual Tablet.

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Losartan Potassium+Hydrochlorothiazide

Indication: Management of hypertension.
Dosage & Administration: One tablet of Angilock(R) plus once daily. More than two tablets of Angilock(R) plus once daily or more than one tablet of Angilock(R) 100 plus once daily is not recommended. Angilock(R) plus 100/12.5 one tablet once daily when Angilock(R) plus is not adequate to control BP.
Contraindication & Precaution: Hypersensitive to any component of this product, anuria or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs. Periodic determination of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be performed at appropriate intervals. Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide therapy. In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics.
Side Effect: Abdominal pain, Edema/swelling, Palpitation, Back pain, Dizziness, Cough, Sinusitis, Upper repiratory infection, Rash.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Drug Interaction: Losartan potassium : Concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics e.g. spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride, potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increases in serum potassium. Hydrochlorothiazide: Alcohol, barbiturates, ornarcotics: potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur. Other antihypertensive drug additive effect or potentiation: Cholestyramine and colestipol resins: Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins.
Preparation: Losartan potassium 50 mg + Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg. Losartan potassium 100 mg + Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg.

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Losartan Potassium

Indication: All grades of hypertension and heart failure. It is also indiacated to delay the progression of remal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, with protein in urine and hypertension.
Dosage & Administration: 50 mg once a day. The dose may be increased to 100 mg taken once daily.
Contraindication & Precaution: In patients who are intravenously volume depleted (e.g. those treated with high-dose diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur. These conditions should be corrected prior to administer Losartan potassium or a lower starting dose (Usually 25 mg) should be used. A lower dose should be considered for patients with a history and renal impairment. Losartan potassium should not be used with potassium-sparing diuretics.
Side Effect: Dizziness, Rash, Angioedema involving swelling of the face, lips and/or tongue and serious hypotension (particularly on initiaiting treatment in salt-depleted patients) or renal failure (mainly in patients with renal artery stenosis) may be encountered during Losartan potassium treatment.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: Losartan potassium should not be used in pregnancy and if pregnancy is detected Losartan potassium should be discontinued as soon as possible. Losartan potassium should not be used in lactating mother.
Drug Interaction: No drug interaction of clinical significance has been identified.
Preparation: 25 mg, 50 mg & 100 mg Tablet.

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